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What is R?

R is a programming language. To use R, we need to install an Integrated Development Environment (IDE). Rstudio is the Best IDE available as it is user-friendly, open-source and is part of the Anaconda platform.

In this tutorial, we will learn

What is Anaconda?

Anaconda free open source is distributing both Python and R programming language. Anaconda is widely used in the scientific community and data scientist to carry out Machine Learning project or data analysis.

Why use Anaconda?

Anaconda will help you to manage all the libraries required for Python in RStudio, or R. Anaconda will install all the required libraries and IDE into one single folder to simplify package management. Otherwise, you would need to install them separately.

How to Install RStudio in Anaconda

Installing RStudio in Anaconda

How to Install RStudio in Anaconda for Mac

Below are the steps to install RStudio in Anaconda for Mac:

Step 1) Download Anaconda for Python 3.6 for your OS.

By default, Chrome selects the downloading page of your system. In this tutorial, Anaconda install RStudio is done for Mac. If you run on Windows or Linux, download Anaconda 5.1 for Windows installer or Anaconda 5.1 for Linux installer.

Step 2) Start Anaconda RStudio installation

You are redirected to the Anaconda3 Installer.

Step 3) Continue with installation process

Step 4) Read the End User Agreement

Step 6) Locate the installation path

Step 7) Start installing Anaconda

A message box is prompt. You need to confirm by typing your password. Hit Install Software

It may take some time to Install Conda in R. It depends on your machine.

Step 8) Install VS Code if you want

Anaconda asks you if you want to install Microsoft VSCode. You can ignore it and hit Continue

Step 9) Finish the installation

The installation is completed. You can close the window.

You are done with the installation of Anaconda on a macOS system.

How to Install RStudio in Anaconda for Windows

Here are the steps to install RStudio in Anaconda for Windows:

Step 2) Accept the License Agreement

Step 6) Installation will begin

Once done, Anaconda will be installed.

How to Install R Install R on Mac

Here is a step by step process to install R on Mac:

Step 1) Anaconda uses the terminal to install libraries. The terminal is a quick way to install libraries. We need to be sure to point the installation toward the right path. In our case, we set the location of Anaconda to the Users/USERNAME/. We can confirm this by checking anaconda3 folder.

Step 2) For Mac user:

The shortest way is to use the Spotlight Search and write terminal.

The terminal sets the default working directory to Users/USERNAME. As you can see in the figure below, the path of anaconda3 and the working directory are identical. In macOS, the latest folder is shown before the $. For me, it is Thomas. The terminal will install all the libraries in this working directory.

If the path on the text editor does not match the working directory, you can change it by writing cd PATH in the terminal. PATH is the path you pasted in the text editor. Don’t forget to wrap the PATH with “PATH”. This action will change the working directory to PATH.

Step 4) We are ready to install R. I recommend you to install all packages and dependencies with the conda command in the terminal.

## In the terminalconda install r-essentials --yes

r-essentials means conda will install R and all the necessary libraries used by data scientist.

Conda is downloading the libraries

It takes some time to upload all the libraries. Be patient…you are all set.

In the terminal, you should see Executing transaction: done. If so, you have successfully installed R.

You can check where R is located.

Install R on Windows

Following is a step by step process to install R on Windows:

Step 1) Open the Anaconda command prompt

Step 2) In the command prompt

Enter the R install command

Environment will be determined

List of packages to be installed will be listed

Step 3) Enter y and hit the return key to start installation

Step 4) Installation will take time, and you will get done message.

How to Install RStudio Mac User

In the terminal, write the following code to install RStudio Anaconda:

## In the terminalconda install -c r rstudio --yes

In the terminal, you should see Executing transaction: done. If so, you have successfully installed Rstudio.

You are all set now, congratulation!

Windows User

Step 1) Enter command to install RStudio on Anaconda prompt

Step 2) You will be shown a list of packages that will be installed. Enter y

Step 3) R Studio will be installed


Avoid as much as you can to install RStudio Anaconda library using pip for Python, and R. Conda libraries gather a lot of packages, you don’t need to install RStudio on Anaconda prompt libraries outside of conda environment.

Run Rstudio

Directly run the command line from the terminal to open Rstudio. You open the terminal and write rstudio. You can also use Desktop Shortcut


A new window will be opened with Rstudio.


Open Rstudio from the terminal and open a script. Write the following command:

## In Rstudio summary(cars)

Check Output

If you can see the summary statistics, it works. You can close Rstudio without saving the files.

Install package

Install package with anaconda is trivial. You go to your favorite browser, type the name of the library followed by anaconda r.

You choose the link that points to anaconda. You copy and paste the library into the terminal.

Run conda install -c r r-randomforest –yes from the terminal.

The installation is completed.

Note that Thorough this tutorial, you won’t need to install many libraries as the most used libraries came with the r-essential conda library. It includes ggplot for the graph and caret for the machine learning project.

Open a library

To run the R function randomForest(), we need to open the library containing the function. In the Rstudio script, we can write library(randomForest)

## In Rstudiolibrary(randomForest) ## randomForest 4.6-12 ## Type rfNews() to see new features/changes/bug fixes.

Warning: Avoid as much as possible to open unnecessary packages. You might ended up creating conflicts between libraries.

Run R code

We have two ways to run codes in R

We can run the codes inside the Console. Our data will be stored in the Global Environment but no history is recorded. We won’t be able to replicate the results once R is closed. We need to write the codes all over again. This method is not recommended if we want to replicate our save our codes

    Warning: In we point the cursor at the second row (i.e., slice_vector[1:5]), the Console displays an error. That’s, we didn’t run the line number 1.

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